Australian Curriculum v9 - Year 4 HASS Skills

Questioning and researching


Develop questions to guide investigations about people, events, places and issues

  • Asking questions before, during and after an investigation using tools such as a KWL chart (what they know, what they want to know and what they have learned) and five W’s + H (who, what, when, where, why and how) 
  • Discussing how an investigation about the past, such as through a museum display, video or interactive website, is guided by questions at different stages, including “Why is that important now?”


Locate, collect and record information and data from a range of sources, including annotated timelines and maps

  • Identifying the types of sources suited to historical, geographical, civic inquiry contexts (for example, paintings, maps and written records/accounts to investigate the First Fleet or a local environment; newspaper articles and database information to investigate the cultural diversity of the local community or to respond to a civic or geographic issue such as recycling; traditional ballads and stories to investigate historical events or cultural groups in the community) and discussing why particular sources might be suitable for a particular context
  • Exploring stories about the groups people belong to; for example, cultural groups such as groups that value First Nations Australian or Asian heritage; interest and community groups such as recreational and volunteering organisations; and gender or religious groups
  • Using graphic organisers, timelines, maps, graphs or tables to display data and information (for example, a food web; consequence wheels for an issue; creating a timeline related to the First Fleet; mapping locations of different types of vegetation, the loss of native species, the movement of peoples over time, or social, cultural and religious groups in Australia’s society) and using digital applications as appropriate

Interpreting, analysing and evaluating


Analyse information and data, and identify perspectives

  • Comparing information in sources to identify evidence of change; for example, First Nations Australian, Dutch and French place names on Australia’s west coast
  • Analysing information gathered through visible thinking strategies to examine a group of paintings and/or maps across a period of time to explore evidence of continuity and change, and significant events in Australia pre- and post-1788 (for example, images of First Nations Australian rock painting depicting early interactions and trade with the Macassans) and comparing it with written information from a historian
  • Exploring different perspectives about a historical event (for example, the perspectives of convicts, soldiers, free settlers and First Nations Australians on the arrival of the First Fleet) or a contemporary issue, such as a school issue or an environmental issue

Concluding and decision-making


draw conclusions based on analysis of information

  • explaining how seeking resources is connected to trade, world exploration, colonisation, economic development and environmental change



present descriptions and explanations, using ideas from sources and relevant subject-specific terms

  • describing the relative location of different features in a place by distance and compass direction; for example, the distance from their home to the local waste management site, the route of a navigator
  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms when speaking, writing and illustrating; for example, using historical terms such as “exploration”, “navigation”, “trade”, “penal”, “transportation”, “contact” and “colonisation”; using geographical terms such as “continents”, “countries”, “natural resources”, “vegetation”, “environments”, “ecosystems”, “sustainability”, “consumption”, “waste” and “management”; and using civic terms such as “local government”, “decision-making”, “services”, “roles”, “responsibilities”, “rules”, “laws” and “belonging”